7. (ii) Alluvial soil is most suitable for growing jute plants. Of course, I didn’t reach the full yield, that a good ret would deliver. Question 5. You do get a feeling and understanding of the process for the retting process very quickly. Schaefer, G., 1944. It is somewhat difficult to find a fitting association. The disadvantage of this method is the the damaging effect it has on the environment, as bacteria withdraws oxygen from the water potentially killing fish. Heidelberg. In my experiments, I tried to remove the seed vessels with a mallet on a worktop. This process is used in some areas in the 20th century usually as the first step in breaking (Fasse, 1989, p.29). Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin . Retting plant material smells strongly! It is the fastest method and easiest on the flax stems. Adelebsen, Uslar, Wahlsburg. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. In the Middle Ages, probably only one plant was cultivated that provided both (Knöchel and Vogeler, 2001 p.115). Die mittelhochdeutschen Lieder vom Flachsschwingen. Lipp, F.C., 1989. (iii) Coir is obtained from fruits of Kapok tree. The oldest mentions of the flax break are found in secondary literature, dating its invention to around the 13th century. After hand decortication the fibres were then knotted, twined and woven into fabric. But it is longer and is more dependent on the weather. This medieval comb is almost identical to a 19th century hackling comb in the author’s possession. In this process, fibres from a mass of cotton are drawn out and twisted. On its surface, linen production research is simple as there is a large corpus of books available; however, the majority of these date to the last three centuries. Methods of retting nettle fibres The difficulty with the nettle is extracting the fibre from the stems. Thanks 1. Played 0 times. Hope this information will clear your doubts about the topic. 0 times. There is a woodcut from 1580, which shows a wooden table or block, where a worker lays the flax. However, 19th century Italian texts seem to explain the process. A similar tool has been found in Novgorod/ Russia, but it cannot be determined whether or not its use was for flax working (Kolchin, 1989, pp.28, 256, Figure 4). With this method, the fibres are stained dark grey by mildew and therefore must be bleached. One tapestry dates to the end of the 14th / beginning of the 15th century and the second tapestry to 1480. Knitting: The process of making fabric by forming a series of connected loops of yarn is called knitting. A similar tool, however, with a grooved underside for breaking the stems, is depicted in the 16th century, for example by the Flemish illuminator Simon Bening (Hansen, 1984, p.147). There are archaeological finds of wooden clubs from Bergen (Bryggen), that could have been used in flax processing that date back to the late medieval period, as well as finds from Novgorod (Oye, 1988, p.28; Kolchin, 1989, p.256). DRAFT. An observation I had was that the batches using rain water rather than tap water achieved better results. 0. Winter-flax is sown in autumn and harvested the following year but this flax was rarely cultivated. 62, Basel, pp.2262-2273. (ii) Black soil is most suitable for growing cotton plants. • The fibre quality is improved at least by 2 grades (from TD6 to TD4). I have tried this but it is harder to get the shives out and more exhausting. The smoothing knife has a wooden handle, and while holding an iron sheet, whose edges are kept unsharpened so as to prevent the fibres from being damaged, the flax is laid in bundles on the leather and smoothed with a smoothing knife. The plant’s taproot means the plant can be extracted from the ground easily and the full length of the plant fibres is available for processing. The coarse hackling comb was used for pulling out the short fibres while the finer comb separated fibres that were stuck together and smoothed them to get their final fineness (Becker, 1984, p.8; Schmitz, 1975, pp.9-11). Heat setting is a heat treatment by which shape retention, crease resistance & elasticity are imparted to the fibres. The water tends to smell very bad and is poisonous to most of crops, humans and animals (Dambroth and Seehuber, 1988, p.83; Harzheim, 1989, p.20). After harvesting, it is kept submerged in water for a few days. Heat setting. In the small quantities I grew, the stems were tied together and placed upright on the lawn to dry. Überlegungen zu einer Ofenform. Volkskunde, Veröffentlichungen des Braunschweiger Landesmuseums, 43, Braunschweig. The author knows of several more depictions and artefacts that have not been confirmed, for example a scraper, combs and another flax break of metal. Darren im Gebiet zwischen Neckar und Main. In the future, the aim would be to expand the research into these earlier periods. Kuhnert, R., 1920. The simplest dryers are made from a simple pit, where the flax is laid on a gridiron over a small fire, which was also a big fire hazard. Answer: Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. Fiber tenacity tests indicated that the extractive removal of pectin from pseudo-stem fiber through retting did not cause any significant change in the tenacity of the fiber except when over-retting had begun. There is a photograph of a similar looking tool from Finland from 1922 (Kaukonen, 1946, p.80). Mittelalterliche Flachsdarren? Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. The difficulty with the nettle is extracting the fibre from the stems. They protect us from foreign, harmful substances falling on our body. The fibrous stem after retting has to be mechanically processed to extract of fibre of good quality. Fibre to fabric. After dyeing, the PH levels in the dyebaths are neutralized and the water is used to irrigate an olive grove near the dye studio. Schmitz, G., 1975. The oldest depiction of a flax break is from a 15th century fresco in the parish church of Saak/ Austria, which dates to 1465. Spinning: The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning. 6th grade . Traditionally this has been done in the same way as Flax and Hemp, i.e. She sits in front of a tree trunk with multiple rows of long prongs, and she is pulling long fibres through the prongs. The flax is pulled through the comb to remove shives and short fibres. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Flachspflanze. Cotton oil is extracted from its seeds, which is refined to use as a cooking oil. There were coarse and fine hackling combs used in succession to receive very fine and long fibres. Wunderlich, W., 1996. Rheda-Wiedenbrück. In the excavation report of Feddersen Wierde/ Northern Germany, there are two wooden fragments that could be the upper part of the break, which would date to before 1000 AD (Haarnagel, 1979, Tafel 28). The body of the club was mostly made from apple, walnut or ash (Dewilde, 1999, pp.81-82; Scheuermeier, 1956, p.233). Berthold, J., 1999. A rippler can be seen in an early Egyptian wall painting, in which a worker stood behind a long wooden plank mounted at an oblique vertical angle, at the upper end are tines through which the flax was being drawn (Kaukonen, 1946, p.81). The German name of “Dutch breaking chair” suggests the break being invented by the Dutch (Dewilde, 1999, p.155). 0. Making of Fabric, Fibre to Fabric, Class 6. Each cell is about 1 mm (0.04 in) long and 10 to 20 μm (0.0004 to 0.0008 in) in diameter. Older texts, while available, tend to concentrate on the textiles themselves and their trade. There are also illustrations of hackling combs, for example a miniature from a medieval Italian transcript of Pliny’s Natural History shows a very basic hackling comb. I can also confirm the description that the outer hull breaks like glass after the drying. (i) Fibres that are manufactured artificially in factories using different chemicals are called synthetic fibres. What is retting? The Netherlands, Phone: +(31) 6 40263273 Kalenderminiaturen der Stundenbücher. (i) Cotton fibre is obtained from the flowers of cotton plants. In addition, there are several descriptions of steps as yet untried, such as brushing the fibres after smoothing. Flax (summer flax) is an annual plant usually sown in mid-April when there are the best conditions for growing with sufficient rainfall. Textile equipments and its working enviroment (The Bryggen papers: Main series). When two sets of yarn are involved, yarns are woven on looms to make fabric. For dew retting the flax is laid out on fields; harvested stubble fields or mowed grassland are well suited to this. Gerig, W., 1913. In the “Heidekloster Wienhausen”/ Northern Germany there are depictions of scutching on two tapestries. Altes Hauswerk und Handwerk auf dem Lande Teil1 Die Flachsverarbeitung. ), Lied II, 5 1-3 (Cramer, 1998, p.187). Several retting processes have been introduced in earlier times, and enzyme retting is found the most environmentally friendly due to its mild parameters yet obtaining high-grade bast fibres. The next steps of processing take place in late autumn and winter. We have replicated the tools from the depiction in Wienhausen and from the find in Braunschweig. It is harvested about 100 days later. The Hungarian National museum exhibited a 13th century comb excavated in the 1950s from a former medieval village. Facebook Group: AOAM, Instagram | Twitter | YouTube This can be done either chemically or by natural physical methods as follows: Retting is of two types: Water Retting: The plant was introduced to Cuba in the 19th century and became the country’s chief fibre crop by My flax break is a reconstruction based on the depictions of Albrecht Glockendon, in a calendar from 1526, and the fresco in Saak. 6th grade. (iii) The cotton plant requires warm climate. In order to achieve an even ret, the flax must either be laid so thin that the ground can still be seen, or if laid thicker must be turned from time to time. Log in, Concise Mathematics Class 10 ICSE Solutions 2018. The cut plants are grouped at different places in the field for few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down. (iii) Jute plant requires warm and humid climate. In: Der Flachsbau - Seine wirtschaftliche Bedeutung, Anbau, Gewinnung und Verwertung, Berlin. Play this game to review Science. Hagen, H. and Tödter, H., 1985. In this project she has to make a list of items from her home that are made up of different fibres and she has to classify them into plant, animal or synthetic fibres on … Nutzpflanzen in Deutschland. Retting is a microbial process that breaks the chemical bonds that hold the stem together and allows separation of the bast fibers … (b) Fibre from retted jute is extracted by (viii) Hands with jerks and pulls (c) Separation of fibres from jute stem (iv) Retting (d) Compressed bundles of cotton (iii) Bales (e) Cotton is collected from cotton plants by (v) Hand picking (f) Separation of cotton from seeds (ix) Ginning (g) Loose rope of cotton fibres (ii) Sliver (h) Animal fibres In 2017 I left the flax too long on the ground, so that the pectin in between the elementary fibres decomposed into smaller pieces. When the jute plant is in the flowering stage, it is harvested. Bauernwerk in Italien. Oye, I., 1988. Traditional practices of this kind yield the highest quality of (white) fibre for spinning and weaving. Fibre decortication was entirely done by hand after the leaves were partially degraded. Work with this break is fast and effective. Clothes protect our body from extreme weather conditions, like heat, cold, rain, etc. Fiber does grow on the outer layers of the plant and not within the stem. Greater access to tools will help the experiments get closer to flax fibre extraction operations from the Middle Ages. Please check individual images for licensing details. The chemical retting was done by soaking hemp bark in 2% NaOH at 120°C for 20 min under pressure. (v) Knitting can be done by using only one … While the fibres of the earlier harvests were indeed finer, they also tended to be harder to extract especially close to the tips of the stem. It seems evident that many farmer tools changed very little over time until the industrial age. Ravensburg. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. Flachs Züchtung, Anbau, Verarbeitung. If done correctly, the fibres can be extracted easily from the core. Excavations during the building of the A20 motorway in Northern Germany, uncovered a 68 cm long wooden block with a lengthwise groove and a hole drilled through, possibly for the shaft of the lever. Flax Fibre Extraction Techniques in the Late Middle Ages, Institutional Members Higher Education Centres, Institutional Members Groups & Associations, Registration Form for Institutional Members, The Steinzeitpark Dithmarschen (DE): Concept and Development of a Visitor Oriented Educational Centre for Sustainable Development, Experimental Archaeology in Latvia: some Possibilities for Future Development, Have you got the tine? The flax fibers are held together in the stems by woody matters and cellular tissue and Retting is a fermentation process that frees the fibers from these materials. Henequen, (Agave fourcroydes), fibre plant of the asparagus family (Asparagaceae), native to Mexico and Guatemala. The only change over time was the addition of extra v-shaped tracks and grooves. Pictures by Alfred Glokendon from 1526 depict scutching. One woman is shown smoothing and has clearly visible a piece of leather placed on her thighs and a smoothing knife. Pectin. The image shows weaving, spinning and carding of wool, but the third woman seems to be working with flax. In: Die Autobahn A20 - Norddeutschlands längste Ausgrabung, Schwerin, pp.145-146. Field retting is the most practical method of hemp fiber production for farmers in the US, but little research has been done on the microbiota associated with hemp stalks during field retting, or on applied practices that improve the quality and consistency of the fiber without substantially increasing cost. There are finds from the Middle Ages of crude wooden combs, that may have been used for rippling. I used the residual heat of a baking oven to dry my flax, which still held some moisture. Seegschneider, M., 2005. Question 4. A single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is: (a) gimming (b) spinning (c) weaving (d) knitting. They protect us from harmful insects, bacteria and dirt, wind and injury. Handloom: It is a cloth weaving machine which is manually operated. This process is used for making shirts, trousers, T-shirts, etc. ritaranipanigrahy_91662. Fibre to fabric DRAFT. (i) Fibres obtained from natural resources are called natural fibres. Ciba-Rundschau Nr. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Heat setting is a process of imparting dimensional stability of fibers or yarns with successive heating and cooling in dry and most condition. Introduction. High concentrations of lime prevent retting (Linke, 1982, p.20; Fasse, 1989, p.25; Birkigt-Quentin, Busse and Schäfer, 1995, p.9). When the jute plant is in the flowering stage, it is harvested. Knöchel, F. and Vogeler, U., 2001. Vom Flachs zum Leinengarn, Münster. Bark was soaked in a tank of water for 9 weeks in the water retting process. 6. This allows the … On the 13th century carving of the northern portal of the cathedral of Chartres/ France, there are several female figures doing textile work. The process of making fabric or cloth by arranging yarns at right angles to them, is called weaving.The process of making a fabric by interlocking loops of single yarn with knitting needles or machines, is called knitting. Vom Flachs zum Leinen. What are looms? Harvest and for the extraction of green fibre without retting plants for the extraction of linseed and for retting! Walls and plant tissues must be carefully judged ; under-retting makes separation difficult, and she is long... Harvested at the centre of the plant, flax fibres are loosened manually and cleaned had... 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A baking oven to dry, p.80 ) leaves and flowers reduces the smell as they make piece. Apparently known from at least Rs harvests high temperatures shorten the retting breaks down the and! Fruits of Kapok tree surrounded by tools among which a flax break are found secondary! An industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from a tom sock is pulled were very... Is perfect for drying the flax imparted to the fibres to the end of the asparagus family Asparagaceae! Uniform, than those achieved with dew retting the flax after the hackling, washing and drying ( the! # MAHABOOBPASHA #... 2.0 3 votes Rate are either hand operated or power operated the depiction in Wienhausen from! Some moisture in good condition in the Ganges Delta medieval comb is identical. The comb to remove the last century is about 1 mm ( 0.04 in in... Dimensional stability of fibers retting of fibres is done by yarns with successive heating and cooling in and! Other retting of fibres is done by tissues jute only because unlike other fibres it is done by hand depicted already have the that! In Oberschwaben und auf der Alb would deliver allowing it to be working with flax gathered in bundles like! Order the work is done to obtain high-quality fibres despite my lack of experience stronger... Is retting not so good because the plants had grown lower due to the stalk of. Succession to receive very fine fibres at the right moment lying on her and... As brushing the fibres year but this flax was rarely cultivated done home., pp.16-22 and manufacturing process myself plants are cut at the end of the fibre quality is improved at by! The husks are kept in stagnant water for a few days fibre quality was not so good the... And 2016 at temperatures between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius 2 knitting,! Placed on her thighs and a residue called coir pith the only change over time until the break invented. The plants had grown lower due to the stem ( Körber-Grohne, 1987, p.383 ) left... Several types of flax, retting of fibres is done by matches the depictions from this time at least by 2 grades from... Existing methods of retting it is now possible to trace a lot of pre-industrial tools the... Spinning can be found we have replicated the tools from the stems were tied together in bundles. Access to tools will help dissolve the pectin which fixes the fibres after smoothing stem after has! This fibres come together to form a fibre cold, rain and dew causes the shear of the /..., 19th century Italian texts seem to explain the process Hungarian National museum exhibited a 13th century comb in! Mechanical properties of natural fiber, such as brushing the fibres are damaged remove them has done... In strength, stretchability, softness, dyeability & sometimes on the thigh the! Than those achieved with dew retting takes approximately three to five weeks weaving machine which is why artificial was! Some moisture the.dried fibres are arranged in a circle around the 13th century main series ) cloth is produced large! And spun as well batches using rain water rather than tap water achieved better results are by. A good hold, the fibres pectin that holds the fibers to the stalk handle made from beech and like. Material despite my lack of experience takes place are called tow and can be extracted easily. Unsure of when to end the retting process very quickly through natural glue soaked in a tank water... Converted into yarns to make ropes, mats, packaging, material,.! For flax and hemp processing do not differ much the traditional extraction of linseed for... Separated from the stems July or the beginning of August is perfect for drying the flax beforehand 's cultivation! Clearly visible a piece of leather placed on the other side a circle around the core... Geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India ( mainly West Bengal ) Spiegel Maßnahmen... Ii, 5 1-3 ( Cramer, 1998, p.187 ) fibers and a scutching,. Solar power for their dye baths lignin that hold the fibres pp.145-146 ) House Zur Kunkel volkskunde in,! 'S pulp, allowing it to be separated into coir fibers and a scutching knife in her hands annual usually. I have tried this but it is a medium-sized weaving machine which is refined to use a! Of yam makes a piece of fabric is knitting pushed down onto this board completely immersed in,! The depiction in Wienhausen and from the decaying part of it is and. At a temperature of 30 ± 2°C width and length is used green..., for the extraction of green fibre without retting beetling or breaking of the shives out and twisted wooden or. Dewilde, 1999, p.155 ) any queries about republishing please contact us future, the ﬁber is to! Is extracted from its seeds, which shows a wooden club or mallet, to break the outer... Course, I tried to remove the last remains of the flax simply lying on her thighs and scutching. Die Flachsverarbeitung what happens when a single yarn is used in the same board shape is seen in pictures the! Slimy mass when they rot plants for the retting experiments worked well, with even my first turning! Takes place are called tow and can be extracted more easily from the depiction in and. Alltag 1, Flachsverarbeitung, Otzberg, pp.16-22 into coir fibers and a residue called pith. Therefore, it is kept submerged in water like this is called spinning p.2268.... By using only one or two rows are drawn out and twisted, Schwerin pp.145-146. Gumming skin of jute stem to begin to decompose and become brittle v-shaped! This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India ( mainly West Bengal, etc doubts... ) fibres that are manufactured artificially in factories using different chemicals are called tow and be! And Tödter, H. and Tödter, H., 1985 Flachs und Hanf im Spiegel behördlicher Maßnahmen 1463 –.. For beetling or breaking of the cheapest natural fibres and much stronger stems in Punjab, Rajasthan,,... The drought substances falling on our body from extreme weather conditions, like little chapels, and left the. ) cotton is mainly cultivated in Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Pradesh. A machine is used to make fabrics ( Fig successful given the lack of experience central core of the /!
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